Considering different technical approaches within the practice of water volleyball, water volley and acqua pallavollo; game of Coeds, a new generic leisure!

Introduction
Water volleyball is competitive fine-tuned middle- court oriented water game. It has emerged from recreational pool activities, sports, aquatic clubs, water parks, through the practice of unification of the beach and water tournaments. Disney aqua park had already in nineties pool volleyball entertainment. DLRG- Ortsgruppe Havixbeck, has organized first water volley tournament in 1985, creating by-so water volleyball club. US has on its own developed powerful swimming pool play, creating volley standards. Water Volleyball is played through out US Universities, such as: San Diego University, California, Iowa State University, Iowa, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, Lenoir-Rhyne University, N. C., Lindsey Wilson College, Columbia. Practice of outdoor tournaments is as well present in Italy, with the most prominent:I Tornei Di Acqua, Benveneto, La Uisp, Torneo di calcio e volley in acqua, Festa Lungofiume, Imola, Torneo di calcio e volley sull’acqua, Polinago, Modena, Torneo volante di pallavolo in acqua, San Luigi e Sant’Agnese – Cernusco Lombardone, Toreno di pallavolo in aqcua, USSG Sartirana, Merate, Torneo di aquavolley, Campoli Appenino, Lazzio, Volley team Brianza, Torneo di splash volley, Tabiago, Nibionno, Torneo di Acqua Volley, Veneto, Italia, Aqcua Volley Games, Bagnara di Romagna,Torneo di pallavolo in acqua nel parco dell’Isonzo, Turriaco. Interesting intramurals in Gemany: Wasservolleyballturnier Bad Karlshafen, Wasservolleyballturnier der JC Müllrose, Wasservolleyballturnier de DLRG, Schaumburg. World-wide in: Beach Palace Cancun, Wollogong Campus, Australia, Pascack Valley Swim Club, Club Hotel RIU Bachata, Dominican Republic, Sao Jose de Mipibu in Rio Grande do Norte, or Prima Sol El Mehdi in Tunisia. The sport is known diffrently as aqua-volei (Brazil), voleibol acuático (Spain), Wasser-Volleyball (Germany), acqua pallavolo (Italy), vodní volejbal (Czech), splash/ pool/water volley (USA).
Tournaments are played mainly in June and July, with exception of Germany, where such tournaments are played in November. However, there are already two interesting association of water volleyball. Cradle of the volleyball is Texas and Lombardia. The first US association of water volleyball, Association of Water Volleyball Professionals (ASWVP) group of water volleyballers head-quartered in Austin, Texas.Texas, particularly Austin, has wide-spread practice of water volleyball. Water Volley Italia, organized lots of tournaments, respectively Turneo Santa Marinella 2008-2011, Turneo di volleyball, Foro Italico.
Features and Benefits of Play
It is well known that water has a positive impact on humans. Benefits are numerous. Play in water has positive effects: good mood, vigilance, insight, swift, coordination, focus, collegiality [8]. It develops ability for initiative, and yet cherish team spirit. Player should have ability for fast thinking, reflex, determination and creativity. All this is provided or developed in water volleyball technique.
Volleyball enhance sense of fellowship, develop respect and openness. While in the game, players contribute to the team’s success, by creating a score, and most importantly, through competitive environment. They realize themselves as individuals through different strategic scopes, tasks and activities.
Team aspect of the game is especially emphasized. Game involves a number of analytical and technical skills, speed reasoning, perceptual ability, coordinated senses, movement discipline . Operational activities through analytical understanding of the situation, exploiting opportunities, creating excellence and superiority, sport performance [1][2]. The goal is to build strategic advantage that will improve team efficiency and transform opportunities into success. Compared to most of the land sports, the game is slower, less tensed, oriented toward flexibility and resourcefulness.
Material and method
Technical analysis is made on available data in UTSA Campus Intramural Sports rules, Lamar University Intramural sports rules, Water Volley 2011-2014 Regolamento ufficiale, USAV 2013-2015 Beach Domestic Competition Regulations, FIVB Official beach volleyball rules 2013-2016, NCAA Women’s Volleyball Rules 2008, and other inter-collegiate co-ed club practices with useful conclusions [6, 7, 13, 16, 21, 22].
Results
Differences between beach and indoor volleyball
• Playing surface – sand rather than hard court
• The dimensions of the court are 52’/16 by 26’/8 meters, compared to 59’/18 by 29’/9 meters in the indoor game.
• The beach court has no “attack line”, unlike the indoor court, which has such a line 9.8’/3 meters from the net, same net height
• Team size – six, with no substitutions allowed
• Scoring system – best of 3 sets played to 21 (15 for a deciding set) rather than best of 5 to 25
• Overhand touches and tips – open-hand dinks are illegal
• A block at the net counts as one of the three allowed touches in the beach game, but not in the indoor game
• Open-hand setting standards are different in the beach game –double hitting is called tighter but lifts are slightly more lenient
• Coaching during matches is not allowed
• There are no rotation errors on the beach – players may switch sides at will
• It is legal to cross under the net in beach volleyball as long as it does not interfere with opponents’ play
• Teams switch ends of the court every seven points, rather than between sets
• There is no Libero in beach like there is in indoor
The major similarity in the courts used in the two forms of volleyball is the net. In both versions, the height of the net is 7 feet, 11 5/8 inches for men and 7 feet, 2 1/8 inches 2.24 for women [4, 20, 21].

Differences between beach and water volleyball
Differences are expressed in scoring system, rule of rotation and the switch [11, 14, 20].
• Playing surface – water rather than sand
• The dimensions of the court are 52’/16 by 26’/8 m
• The beach court has no “attack line”
• Team size six, substitutions are allowed
• Scoring system – best of 3 sets played to 25
• Overhand touches and tips – open-hand dinks are illegal
• A block at the net counts as one of the three allowed touches
• Double hitting allowed
• Coaching during matches is not allowed
• Rotation rule, like in basic volleyball
• Cross under net is illegal
• teams switch ends of the court between sets
• There is no Libero in water volleyball
In triple comparison water volleyball shows more rules similarity to beach volleyball than to the in-door [17]. Some mayor rules like switch, court size, net-touching, attack-line are inherent to beach volleyball, other elements like scoring, rotation, player’s bench, substitution are more similar to in-door.                   Differences between water polo and water volleyball
• Playing surface –water
• Different court size- dimensions are 20 by 10 meters
• No central net, positioning and one-team area
• Team size seven instead of six
• Scoring system –goals, fixed interludes
• Bellow and under water faults
• No net – goal blocks
• Advancing the ball
• Coaching during matches is allowed
• Player bench as in water volleyball
• Substitutions are allowed
• Teams switch ends after half
• There is no Libero as in water volleyball
Some basic technical rules are derived from water polo, such as player bench, side-switch, water judging, substitution. For example player bench rule is formed from category of polo player bench, the same thing is with authority of referee.Lay-out, water competition, court audience, sport culture, is totally identical and finds its meaning in the merits of water polo.
Therefore, water volleyball takes most of terminology of basic volleyball, with elements of equipment common to water polo or competitive swimming. Knowing this, that encompasses two qualities, water and earth, water volleyball is for now, first ball game that involves active interaction between two fluids.
Regardless of the terminology and rules, volleyball is more water sport, as it happens in the aquatic environment, and with water adaptive equipment. Swimmers are not those who specifically play, but bathers, nevertheless water players are those valued the most. Issue of movement refers to lightly swimming, gliding, water walking. In times of rapid, swimming is more efficient way of reaching the ball [6, 22].
American and Italian Volleyball
Acqua pollavolo
Court dimensions. The Water Volleyball is a sport played on a water surface (depth 40 cm and max min 50 cm) from the two teams, separated by a network, each consisting of five athletes of the same sex. The playing field is a rectangle of 14 x 7 m (46 ftx23 ft), surrounded by a clear area at least 3 m wide on each side [18]. The height space free from any obstacle must be at least 7 / 23 ft height from soil.
Scoring System of Water volley. The race is won by the team that wins two sets in the mode 2 of 3, three set in the mode 3 out of 5. In case of a tie 1-1 or 2-2, the deciding set (3rd or
5th) is played to 15 points with a minimum lead of two points. A set (except the deciding third or fifth set) is won by the team that first scores 25 points with a minimum lead of two points in the event of a tie 24:24, the game continues as long as two points separate the teams (26:24 – 27:25).

American water volleyball
The playing area consists of a rectangular playing court measuring 59′ x 29’6″(18x9m). Matches may either consist of 2 out of 3 games. A team wins a match by winning two games. Games are played to 25 points with no cap(win by 2). The tie breaking game is played to 15 win by 2 with a cap of 17 [11].

Differences between American and Italian water volleyball

• Playing surface –water
• Different court size- 46×23 ft to 59×29 ft 14×7 to 19×8
• Water pool depth 16”/40cm to 47”/1.2 m
• Playing surface –water
• Volleyball positioning
• Team size five, Coed 2×3 to six 3×3
• Scoring system 2 out 3, 3 out 5 to 2 out 3
• Coaching during matches is allowed
• Player bench as in water volleyball
• Substitutions are allowed
• Teams switch ends after half
• There is no Libero as in water volleyball
Italian water volleyball rules are made in accordion with FIVB beach volley rules, especially technical description and designs of court, arbitration and proceeders.
Coed water volleyball compositions
• Co-ed triples: 3 players on the court per team, 2×1, 1×2
• Co-ed four-person: 4 players on the court per team, 2×2
• Co-ed five-person: 5 players on the court per team, 3×2
• Co-ed six-person: 6 players on the court per team, 3×3
In Co-Rec play, a team is composed of 3 men and 3 women. You can only have a maximum of three of each gender in the pool at a time.Four-person, triple composition.Each team should start with (4) players, (2) Males & (2) Females [10].
A team must have a minimum of 3 players to start a game and each gender must be represented. Legal playing combinations are 2 &2 or 2 & 1. 3 & 1 is NOT a legal playing combination. Males and females alternate positions on the court.
Compendium
Volleyball
A one-meter (40-inch) wide net. The top of the net is 2.43 m (7 ft 11 5/8 in) above the center of the court for men’s competition, and 2.24 m (7 ft 4 1/8 in) for women’s competition
The game continues, with the first team to score 25 points by a two-point margin is awarded the set. Matches are best-of-five sets and the fifth set, if necessary, is usually played to 15 points. (Scoring differs between leagues, tournaments, and levels; high schools sometimes play best-of-three to 25; in the NCAA games are played best-of-five to 25 as of the 2008 season.
Before 1999, points could be scored only when a team had the serve (side-out scoring) and all sets went up to only 15 points. The FIVB changed the rules in 1999 (with the changes being compulsory in 2000) to use the current scoring system (formerly known as rally point system), primarily to make the length of the match more predictable [14, 18]. Other rule changes enacted in 2000 include allowing serves in which the ball touches the net, as long as it goes over the net into the opponents’ court.
Beach volleyball
The height of the net shall be 2.43 m for men and 2.24m for women. The net is 8.5 m long and 1 m (+/- 3 cm) wide when it is hung taut, placed vertically over the axis of the center of the court .
The match is won by the team that wins two sets. In the case of a 1-1 tie, the deciding set (the 3rd) is played to 15 points with a minimum lead of 2 points. A set (except the deciding 3rd set) is won by the team that first scores 21 points with a minimum lead of two points. In the case of a 20-20 tie, play is continued until a two-point lead is reached [7].
The ball shall be spherical, made of a flexible material (leather, synthetic leather, or similar) which does not absorb humidity, i.e. more suitable to outdoor conditions since matches can be played when it is raining. The ball has a bladder inside made of rubber or a similar material [8].
Acqua Pallavolo
The Water Volleyball is a sport played on a water surface (depth 40 cm and max min 50 cm) from the two teams, separated by a network, each consisting of five athletes of the same sex.
The playing field is a rectangle of 14 x 7 m, surrounded by a clear area at least 3 m wide on each side. The height space free from any obstacle must be at least 7 m height from soil.
The variants of the Water Volley may provide for the participation of teams of 2 or more athletes or mixed teams.The net is 8.50 m length and 1 m wide (+ / – 3 cm), stretched vertically above the axis of the center of the court.
All four buoys (with a diameter of 15-20 cm and brightly colored) located at the four ends of the field, have joined the intersections of the boundary lines. They are considered integral parts of the field [17].
Discussion
There has been affirmed convention made up on tournaments concerning volleyball court dimensions [22]. However much could be argued on correlation between court size and score efficiency [18].
Talks between national volleyball associations and volleyball federation should be made considering international volleyball standards, and continental criteria, scoring system and other technical improvements [5, 23].
Water volleyball is relatively new sport. Further steps will involve transit from associational to professional aspects, creating unique standard and recommendations on general view. Obviously major problem could emerge, in standardization of water volleyball rules, especially regarding the difference between American and Italian volley practice. Difference are expressed in technical aspect and equipment. There are basically two variants. Italian water volley is an outdoor volleyball played in small depth inflammable pools. American water volleyball is however, inter-mural in-ground swimming pool game. Further, one must have in mind well developed practice of German pool water volleyball, and wide-spread American standard of this water sport.
Conclusion
Convergences are required. Possibly, there could be two technical categories, in first, with the process of harmonization of rules, creating well known intramural water volleyball. Second, in relation to beach volleyball tournament, Italian water volley, could be played with accepted significantly different technical elements.
Rules synthesis of these two sports are not possible, because of ergonomics, equipment, dynamics and manner. Depth of the pool in water volley is 0.4m/16 in, while that in water volleyball 1.2m/47 in, court size is the same, with different features. Water volleyball could be played in in-ground swimming pools, while water volley on open courts. USAV and Federation could in future co-opt with two variants, light with inflammable protective pools, within special outdoor tournaments and accompanied with beach volleyball, and intramural, played in classic shallow swimming pools.
Refrences
1. Abernethy B. Visual search strategies and decision-making in sport, International Journal of Sport Psychology. 1991; 22:189–210.
2. Baker J, Cote J, & Abernethy B. Sport specific training, deliberate practice and the development of expertise in team ball sports. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. 2003; 15: 12–25.
3. Giatsis G. The effect of changing the rules on score fluctuation and match duration in the FIVB women’s beach volleyball. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport,. 2003; 3(1):57-64(8).
4. Giatitis G, Kollias I, Panoutsakopoulo V & Papaiakovou G. Biomechanical differences in elite beach volleyball players in vertical squat jump on rigid and sand surface. Sports Biomechanics. 2004; 3(1):145-158.
5. Giatsis G, Papadopoulou S, Dmitrov P. & Likesas G. Comparison of beach volleyball team performance after the reduction in the court dimensions. The International Journal of Volleyball Research. 2004; 3 (1):65-74.
6. FINA Water Polo Rules incl. Appendixes 215-2017
7. FIVB Official beach volleyball rules 2013-2016
8. Dowzer CN, Reilly T, Cable NT & Neville A. Maximal physiological responses to deep and shallow water running. Ergonomics. 1998; 42 (2):275-281.
9. Fry AC, William JK, Cheryl AW, Brian P. C, Scott E.G, Jay RH, Carl MM. The Effects of an Off-season Strength and Conditioning Program on Starters and Non-starters in Women’s Intercollegiate Volleyball.The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 1991; 5 (4):174-181.
10. IAS University, Intramural Coed Water Volleyball (4 vs 4) Rules 2012
11. Lamar University, Intramural sports, Water Volleyball rules
12. Leone M, Lariviere G, & Comtois AS. Discriminant analysis of anthropometric and biomotor variables among elite adolescent female athletes in four sports. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2002; 20(6):443-449.
13. NCAA Women’s Volleyball Rules 2008
14. Pheifer PhE, & Deutsch SJ. A Probabilistic Model for Evaluation of Volleyball Scoring Systems. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 1981; 52(3): 330-338.
15. Ramzaninezha R, Keshtan MH, Shahmat MD & Kordosholli SSTh. The relationship between collective efficacy, group cohesion and team performance in professional volleyball team. Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity. 2009; 3(1): 31-39.
16. WATER VOLLEY 2011-2014 Regolamento ufficiale, Water Volley Italia, Associazione Sportiva Dilettantistica
17. Rodrigues-Ruiz D, Quiroga ME, Miralles JA, Sarmiento S, SAá Y & Garcia-Manso JM. Study of the Technical and Tactical Variables Determining Set Win or Loss in Top-Level European Men’s Volleyball. Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports. 2001; 7 (1)
18. Ronglan LT & Grydeland J. The effects of changing the rules and reducing the court dimension on the relative strengths between game actions in top international beach volleyball. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport. 2006; 6(1):1-12(12)
19. SDSU Intramural 6 on 6 Water Voleyball Rules 2012
20. Tilp M, Wagner H, & Muller E. Differences in 3D kinematics between volleyball and beach volleyball spike movements. Sports Biomechanics. 2008; 7(3)
21. USAV 2013-2015 Beach Domestic Competition Regulations
22. UTSA Campus Intramural Sports, Water Volleyball rules
23. Zhang B, et al. Research on Volleyball Match Patterns under the FIVB Rule. Sport science. 2000; Vol. 2

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